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No doubt Gregory had this biblical model uppermost in his mind, as is clear from the terms he uses to describe the work of destruction. We pulled out of Cassino on my 20th birthday, 26th of … In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and then collapses a wall on a young monk, who is brought back to life by Benedict. In 884 Saracens sacked and then burned it down,[10] and Abbot Bertharius was killed during the attack. Monks reading and copying the medical texts learnt a lot about human anatomy and methods of treatment, and then put their theoretic skills into practice at monastery hospital. In his earlier setting Benedict "had twice shown complete mastery over his aggressiveness, Benedict is now allowed to use it without restraint in the service of God. The area was further protected by the fast-flowing Rapido and Garigliano Rivers which ran west to east. Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like those in Monte Cassino. The second oratory, on the mountain-top, where the pagan altar had stood in the open air, was of the same width but somewhat longer (15.25 meters)."[8]. In 577 Langobards destroyed it, then Saracens in 887. The Abbey of Montecassino is one of the most known Abbeys in the world. Benedictine tradition holds that Scholastica established a hermitage about five miles from Monte Cassino and that this was the first convent of Benedictine nuns. A detailed account of the abbey at this date exists in the Chronica monasterii Cassinensis by Leo of Ostia and Amatus of Monte Cassino gives us our best source on the early Normans in the south. In 1057, Pope Victor II recognised the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots. Benedictine monks took care of the sick and wounded there according to Benedict's Rule. The southern end of the valley was protected by large hills overlooking the town of Cassino and atop which sat the abbey of Monte Cassino. L/S of the abbey on the crest of Monte Cassino. Where Satan concealed himself behind underlings at Subiaco, at Monte Cassino he drops the masks to enter into a desperate attempt to prevent an abbey from being built, and "that the sole cause of this eruption of satanic action is the suppression of pagan worship on the high places. So they began to buy and collect medical and other books by Greek, Roman, Islamic, Egyptian, European, Jewish, and Oriental authors. "[8], While scholars see some similarities between the story of Benedict's encountering demonic phenomena and diabolic apparitions at Monte Cassino with the story of Saint Anthony the Great's temptation in the desert, the influence of the story of St. Martin is dominant – with the resistance of Satan substituting for Martin's outraged pagan populace. Among the great historians who worked at the monastery, in this period there is Erchempert, whose Historia Langobardorum Beneventanorum is a fundamental chronicle of the ninth-century Mezzogiorno. In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua. At the same time, neither Gregory nor Benedict could have forgotten the similar line of action taken by St. Martin against the pagan shrines of Gaul. In 529 Saint Benedict chose this mountain to build a monastery that would host him and those monks following him on the way from Subiaco. The German military forces had established the 161-kilometre (100-mile) Gustav Line, in order to prevent Allied troops from advancing northwards. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529. The bombing was conducted because many reports from the British commanders of the Indian troops on the ground suggested that Germans were occupying the monastery, and it was considered a key observation post by all those who were fighting in the field. He built a chapel dedicated to St. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood. He wrote the Benedictine Rule that became the founding principle for Western monasticism, received a visit from Totila, king of the Ostrogoths (perhaps in 543, the only remotely secure historical date for Benedict), and died there. All the knowledge of the civilizations of all the times and nations was accumulated in the Abbey of that time. "The first to demolish it were Lombards on foot in 580; the last were Allied bombers in 1944. [22], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}41°29′24″N 13°48′50″E / 41.49000°N 13.81389°E / 41.49000; 13.81389, For information about the World War II battle, see, diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo, Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City, Diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo, The Cassino Band of Northumbria Army Cadet Force, "Vatican announces reorganisation of Montecassino Abbey", "Vatican reorganizes Montecassino, mother abbey of the Benedictines", Illustrated article on the Battle of Monte Cassino at Battlefields Europe, Monte Val de' Varri – Monte Faito – Monte San Nicola, Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park, Permanent Observer to the Council of Europe, Palace of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Palace of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, Pontificio Collegio Urbano de Propaganda Fide, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monte_Cassino&oldid=995555732, Christian monasteries established in the 6th century, Buildings and structures in the Province of Frosinone, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, House of Retreat for the Clergy of Saints John and Paul, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 18:10. The Gustav Line stretched from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast in the east, with Monte Cassino itself overlooking Highway 6 and blocking the path to Rome. It was sacked or destroyed a number of times. +39 0776311529  Email: guide@abbaziamontecassino.org, Email: segreteria.abate@abbaziamontecassino.orgTel. According to Gregory the Great's biography of Benedict, Life of Saint Benedict of Nursia, the monastery was constructed on an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the hill. The site was sacked by Napoleon's troops in 1799. found: Pantoni, Angelo. A former head of the ancient abbey of Monte Cassino in Italy is under investigation for allegedly stealing €500,000 (£355,000) of church funds and … The abbey itself however, was not initially utilised by the German troops as part of their fortifications, owing to General Kesselring's regard for the historical monument. Discover Montecassino Abbey in Cassino, Italy: This breathtaking monastery was established by Saint Benedict himself 1,500 years ago. As well, Corps HQ did not fully appreciate the difficulty in getting 4th Indian Infantry Division into place in the mountains and supplying them on the ridges and valleys north of Cassino (using mules across 7 miles (11 km) of goat tracks over terrain in full view of the monastery, exposed to accurate arti… A 17-pdr anti-tank gun and crew near Cassino, 17 May 1944. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there. Their work was admired by contemporaries but was totally destroyed in later centuries except two fragments depicting greyhounds (now in the Monte Cassino Museum). [15], The Abbey was rebuilt after the war. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529. It encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and even Saracen artisans. By the 10–11th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with great library in Medicine and other sciences. In 1321, Pope John XXII made the church of Monte Cassino a cathedral, and the carefully preserved independence of the monastery from episcopal interference was at an end. Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out.[4]. Almost totally destroyed by bombing in World War II, it was rebuilt and consecrated by Pope Paul VI in 1964. Then it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven. [6], Archaeologist Neil Christie notes that it was common in such hagiographies for the protagonist to encounter areas of strong paganism. Then the Crypt is there beneath to be revealed with the astonishing golden mosaics. The care of the sick was such an important duty that those caring for them were enjoined to act as if they served Christ directly. But it is in the museum where finally visitors can see the magnificent paintings, the wonderful manuscripts and ancient books. Monte Cassino - 1st Cassino - Monastery Hill February 1944 : This file is also available as a PDF to download - right click here and select 'Save As'. There has been a monastery here since 570, sacked and re-built on numerous occasions. Other articles where Battle of Monte Cassino is discussed: Cassino: …German resistance in three savage battles. In 744, a donation of Gisulf II of Benevento created the Terra Sancti Benedicti, the secular lands of the abbacy, which were subject to the abbot and nobody else save the Pope. From the dissolution of the Italian monasteries in 1866, Monte Cassino became a national monument. It was St. Benedict of Nursia who established this very first Benedictine monastery around the year 529. M/S Benedictine monks walking in grounds of Pershore and Nashdom abbey in Kent. [18] Until his resignation was accepted by Pope Francis on 12 June 2013, the Territorial Abbot of Monte Cassino was Pietro Vittorelli. German officers Lt. Col. Julius Schlegel (a Roman Catholic) and Capt. Recognizing the defensive value of the terrain, the Germans built the Gustav Line section of the Winter Line through the area. Monte Cassino (Benedictine monastery) Sources. Subsequent investigations found that the only people killed in the monastery by the bombing were 230 Italian civilians seeking refuge there. "The abbot in his wisdom decided that great number of young monks in the monastery should be thoroughly initiated in these arts" – says the chronicler about the role of the Greeks in the revival of mosaic art in medieval Italy. Brigadier John MacFarlane explores the history and impact of the World War II battles surrounding the Italian hill-top monastery of Monte Cassino. At the beginning of 1944, the western half of the Winter Line was held by Germans. bill t wrote a review Oct 2020. Monte Cassino (today usually spelled Montecassino) is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m (1,706.04 ft) altitude. A Sherman tank can be seen in the background. Some others host people seeking for a moment of inner peace and serenity. According to chronicler Leo of Ostia the Greek artists decorated the apse, the arch and the vestibule of the basilica. In Context. In 1349 a violent earthquake occurred and in February 1944 a bombardment almost flatted it. After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. "[8], Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict at Monte Cassino is seen by scholars as the final setting for an epic set in motion at Subiaco. [21], Another account, however, from Kurowski ("The History of the Fallschirmpanzerkorps Hermann Göring: Soldiers of the Reichsmarschall"), notes that 120 trucks were loaded with monastic assets and art which had been stored there for safekeeping. And he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching. Monte Cassino is a monastery in Lazio, Italy, 130 km southeast of Rome.It is a rocky hill overlooking the town of Cassino. It was for the community of Monte Cassino that the Rule of Saint Benedict was composed. [5], Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict claims that Satan opposed the monks repurposing the site. Monte Cassino - Monastery Hill. An earthquake damaged the Abbey in 1349, and although the site was rebuilt it marked the beginning of a long period of decline. It was rebuilt after the war. And like conquering Israel, Benedict came precisely to carry out this purification. Of the first monastery almost nothing is known. Ora et labora et lege: this is the motto of Saint Bendict's Rule that the monks still follow in their daily routine. Director: Harald Reinl | Stars: Joachim Fuchsberger, Antje Geerk, Ewald Balser, Elma Karlowa. St. Benedict (see Subiaco) established his first monastery here.The monastery was constructed on the site of the pagan temple of Apollo and St. Benedict's first act was to smash the sculpture of Apollo and destroy the altar. The abbey on Monte Cassino was originally founded by Saint Benedict in 529, making it one of Europe's oldest monasteries. The Rule of St. Benedict mandated the moral obligations to care for the sick. Montecassino (also spelled Monte Cassino), a small town about 80 miles south of Rome, is the home of the sacred relics and monastery of St. Benedict (480-543), the patron saint of Europe and the founder of western monasticism. Unlike the stories that may have influenced Pope Gregory's structure of the biography, Benedict's victories are practical, preventing Satan from stopping work on the abbey at Monte Cassino. A hermitage about five miles from Monte Cassino constantly needed new medical knowledge been a here! 'S Rule that the Polish flag was flying over the monastery was one of the most known Abbeys in 9th... Some others host people seeking for a moment of inner peace and serenity established this very first Benedictine,... Benedictine tradition holds that Scholastica established a hermitage about five miles from Cassino... 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