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what is a fast reactor

Natural Safety. The FNR was originally conceived to burn uranium more efficiently and thus extend the world's uranium resources – it could do this by a factor of about 60. A consortium was set up in December 2013 for its construction, comprising Italy's National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), Ansaldo Nucleare, and Romania's Nuclear Research Institute (Institutul de Cercetari Nucleare, ICN). In August 2014 JAEA, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Mitsubishi FBR Systems concluded a five-year agreement with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Areva NP to progress cooperation on the French Astrid pool-type design (see above). Rosatom plans to invest its own funds into FNR development through to 2025. fission reaction is initiated by thermal neutrons). It will feature a sodium-cooled fast reactor that uses high energy neutrons to test and develop advanced reactor fuels and materials. It has a transmuter core consisting of uranium and transuranics in metal form from pyro-processing, and no breeding blanket is involved. An agreement between Japan's Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), France's CEA and the US Department of Energy was signed in October 2010. It was expected to be operating in 2017, fuelled with uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX – the reactor-grade Pu being from its existing PHWRs via Purex reprocessing) and with a thorium blanket to breed fissile U-233. The Cogéma plant in La Hague (UP2 - 400) reprocessed approximately 10 tonnes of used fuel between 1979 and 1984 (diluted with the fuel from the GCR reactors). The blanket around the core will have uranium as well as thorium, so that further plutonium (ideally high-fissile Pu) is produced as well as the U-233. STAR-H2 is an adaptation for hydrogen production, with reactor heat at up to 800°C being conveyed by a helium circuit to drive a separate thermochemical hydrogen production plant, while lower grade heat is harnessed for desalination (multi-stage flash process). South Korea's KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) concept is a 600 MWe pool type sodium-cooled fast reactor designed to operate at over 500°C. In contrast to the intention in Russia, these would use ceramic MOX fuel pellets. A significant new Russian design from NIKIET is the BREST fast neutron reactor, of 700 MWt, 300 MWe or more with lead as the primary coolant, at 540°C, and supercritical steam generators. In 2002 the regulatory authority issued approval to start construction of a 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam and this is now under construction by BHAVINI. The demonstration FR model was due to be committed in 2015 and on line in 2025, and a 1500 MWe commercial FR is proposed by MHI for 2050. The 280 MWe Monju demonstration FBR reactor at Tsuruga started up in April 1994, but a sodium leakage in its secondary heat transfer system during performance tests in 1995 caused it to be shut down for almost 15 years. According to a February 2010 study by Deloitte for the EU's Strategic Nuclear Energy Technology Platform, a 600 MWe sodium-cooled fast reactor would cost €4.286 billion, with most of the financing coming from European institution loans, EU incentives and grants such as the EC's European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII), plus €839 million from private investors. Breeder reactors are possible because of the proportion of uranium isotopes that exist in nature. The objectives of the Allegro project are: Allegro is planned as a demonstration plant for the 2400 MWt GFR envisaged by the Generation IV International Forum. This plutonium isotope can be reprocessed and used as more reactor fuel or in the production of nuclear weapons. KALIMER-600 is expected to serve as a reference design for the technology development of Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor systems and in the commercialization of one in South Korea. The work will involve demonstrating transmutation in connection with the Global Actinide Cycle International Demonstration (GACID) programme, led by France. The fuel reached a specific burn-up of 90,000 MWd/t at the centre of the core and 115,000 MWd/t at the periphery. Several fuel cores were made for EBR-II, using high-active materials. For the LWR fuel recycle version, fuel stays in the reactor four years, with one-quarter removed annually, and 72 kg/yr net of fissile plutonium consumed. Fuel rods containing actinides for transmutation were scheduled to be produced from 2023, though fuel containing minor actinides would not be loaded for transmutation in Astrid before 2025. The GFR offers a high temperature heat source for high efficiency electricity generation and high quality process heat. See also section on Primary coolants in the information page on Nuclear Power Reactors. After 14 years a neutron absorber at the centre of the core is removed and the reflector repeats its slow movement up the core for 16 more years. Liquid metal (Pb or Pb-Bi) cooling is by natural convection. For instance one scenario in France is for half of the present nuclear capacity to be replaced by fast neutron reactors by 2050 (the first half being replaced by EPR units). IFR programme goals were demonstrating inherent safety apart from engineered controls,* improved management of high-level nuclear wastes by recycling all actinides, so that only fission products remain as HLW,** and using the full energy potential of uranium rather than only about one percent of it. In both respects the technology is important to long-term considerations of world energy sustainability. In nuclear reactor: Thermal, intermediate, and fast reactors. Fission products will be removed at that rate. ** While the conversion ratio (the ratio of new fissile nuclei to fissioned nuclei) in a normal reactor is around 0.6, that in a fast reactor may exceed 1.0. Today there has been progress on the technical front, but the economics of FNRs still depends on the value of the plutonium fuel which is bred and used, relative to the cost of fresh uranium. Experimental work on heatpipe reactors for space has been with very small units (about 100 kWe), using sodium as the fluid. Initial development work was focused on two pool-type reactors: SSTAR – Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor of 20 MWe in USA, and the European Lead-cooled System (ELSY) of 600 MWe in Europe, since 2018 being taken forward by China. Allegro was the second line of French-led FNR development – also a Euratom project under the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII). IFR would breed more fuel and is distinguished by a nuclear fuel cycle that uses reprocessing via electrorefining at the reactor site. It was launched in 2001 and has 22 members including Russia, aiming "to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation-resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs of the 21st century." Two of these, Pu-239 and Pu-241, then undergo fission in the same way as U-235 to produce heat. A 65 MWt fast neutron reactor – the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) – was designed by 2003 and built near Beijing by Russia's OKBM Afrikantov in collaboration with OKB Gidropress, NIKIET and Kurchatov Institute. Chang, Y.I. Its design is sufficiently similar to PRISM – GE's modular 150 MWe liquid metal-cooled inherently-safe reactor which went part-way through US NRC approval process for it to have good prospects of licensing. In December 2016 the government confirmed plans to decommission it, despite the Fukui local government being adamantly opposed to this. In January 2014 a new GIF Technology Roadmap Update was published. Its 300-400 MWt size means it can be shipped by rail and cooled by natural circulation. Although these fast neutrons are not as good at causing fission, they are readily captured by an isotope of uranium (U238), which then becomes plutonium (Pu239). Thus, the Phénix plant has performed the fuel cycle loop several times, clearly proving the value of the breeder reactor system. Neutron activity is very low in the blanket, so the plutonium produced there remains almost pure Pu-239 – largely not burned or changed to Pu-240. Carbide (UC-10PuC) has high thermal conductivity and a high density of fissile atoms, but high swelling and poor compatibility with air and water. A fast breeder reactor is one which utilises fast neutrons for fission reaction. It is a fast neutron modular reactor cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic, with passive safety features. In addition, reprocessing the fuel will enable recycling without separating the plutonium. A commercial version, still called the Travelling Wave Reactor or TWR-C, would be 1150 MWe. Service life is 40 years. This is a very high-pressure water-cooled reactor which operates above the thermodynamic critical point of water to give a thermal efficiency about one third higher than today's light water reactors from which the design evolves. Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR17), Proceedings of an International Conference Organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Hosted by the Government of the Russian Federation through the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' and Held in Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation, 26-29 June 2017 et al., BN-1200 Reactor Power Unit Design Development, OKBM Afrikantov, presented at the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, held in Paris on 4-7 March 2013 After CEA’s Astrid programme was put on hold in August 2019, in January 2020 a second five-year agreement on the development of fast neutron reactors took effect. (Source: Vattenfall, 2011 & 2012). It will be factory-produced, with components readily assembled onsite, and with 'walk-away' passive safety. The reactor is fuelled with uranium-plutonium oxide. Its FBTR has run on mixed carbide fuel since 1985 (70% PuC, 30% UC). A 50-100 MWt experimental version would initially have a MOX or UO2 driver core with outlet temperature of 530 °C, then an intermediate core with up to six refractory mixed carbide fuel assemblies, then a final refractory carbide core with 850 °C outlet temperature. The reactor could be operated as a breeder or not. Fuel may be enriched uranium oxide (BN-350, BN-600, BN-800) or MOX (BOR-60, BN-800, BN-1200 initially). In 2009 two BN-800 reactors were sold to China. There is a world shortage of fast reactor research capacity, especially for fast neutron materials testing for Generation IV reactor developments. The BN-600 is reconfigured by replacing the fertile blanket around the core with steel reflector assemblies to burn the plutonium from its military stockpiles. Hence FNRs can utilise uranium about 60 times more efficiently than a normal reactor. Vattenfall, 2011, Key Issues of the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor, M.Hareland thesis It would cost about RUR 165 billion ($4.7 billion). E = experimental, D = demonstration or prototype, C = commercial, R = research. The nitride fuel has been successfully tested in the BN-600 reactor to a burn-up of 7.4%. If a breeding ratio of less than 1, or just a little more than 1 is wanted, then axial blankets which are included in the fuel pins will serve the purpose. A liquid or gas moderator, commonly water or helium, cools the neutrons to optimum energies for causing fission. When temperatures rise to limits set by design, molten chloride salt fuels naturally expand slowing the rate of the nuclear reaction. They operate at around 500-550°C at or near atmospheric pressure. In September 2015 CNNC and TerraPower signed an agreement to work towards building a prototype 600 MWe TWR unit in China, apparently over 2018 to 2023. They are however expensive to build and operate, including the reprocessing, and are only justified economically if uranium prices are reasonably high, or on the basis of burning actinides in nuclear wastes. For instance, the core of Russia's BN-600 reactor (560 MWe) is 0.88 metres active height and 0.75 m diameter. Beyond using Monju, the French CEA, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the US DOE have been discussing the size of planned prototypes, reactor types, fuel types, and schedules for deployment. OKBM envisages about 11 GWe of such plants by 2030, including the South Urals nuclear plant. * If the ratio of final to initial fissile content is less than 1 they are burners, consuming more fissile material (U-235, Pu and minor actinides) than they produce (fissile Pu), if more than 1 they are breeders. Lead-cooled fast reactors. It is to have active and passive shutdown systems and passive decay heat removal. what is the diffrence form other reactors? * In April 1986, two tests were performed on the EBR-II. The BN-800 from OKBM Afrikantov and Atomenergoproekt is a new more powerful (2100 MWt, 864 MWe gross, 789 MWe net) three-loop pool type FBR, which is actually the same overall size and configuration as the BN-600 except that the three steam generators drive a single turbine generator. This entire experience, involving reprocessing high specific burn-up fuels, waste confinement and closed fuel cycle, is claimed by CEA to be unique, and proving the fast breeder reactor fuel cycle as an industrial reality. ACP will use electrometallurgical pyroprocessing to close the fuel cycle with oxide fuels which have been reduced to the metal on a commercial basis. Reuse of World Nuclear Association Content, www.ne.anl.gov/About/reactors/integral-fast-reactor.shtml, Plentiful Energy, the Story of the Integral Fast Reactor, Technology roadmap update for Gen IV nuclear energy systems, PRISM: a Competitive Small Modular Sodium-Cooled Reactor, BN-1200 Reactor Power Unit Design Development, International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR17), Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator – ALFRED Project. The commercial-scale plant concept, part of an 'Advanced Recycling Center', uses three power blocks (six reactor modules) to provide 1866 MWe. It uses sodium as coolant (with electromagnetic pumps) and has passive safety features, notably negative temperature and void reactivity. Construction of the only other commercial fast breeder reactor in the U.S., the Clinch River plant in Tennessee, was halted in 1983 when Congress cut funding. This work is linked with the Generation IV initiative, where Japan is playing a leading role with sodium-cooled FBRs. Interestingly enough, the speed at which a neutron travels determines the likelihood of it interacting with a specific n… Pheil has more than 30 years’ experience in naval reactor design. Metallic fuel (169 pins 10mm diameter) is uranium-zirconium or U-Pu-Zr alloy enriched to less than 20%. In order to harness this energy, a controlled chain reaction is required for fission to take place. Molten salt reactors. The reactor will use metal fuel, and liquid sodium as a coolant, and core temperatures would be about 550ºC. By 1955 the reactor had fulfilled its main experimental purposes, and was tested further by restricting coolant flow, which caused a core melt. Fast reactors typically use liquid metal as the primary coolant to cool the core or heat the water used to power the electricity-generating turbines. Concept intended for developing countries. Some or all of the uranium, and the transuranics (including plutonium and minor actinides), are recycled. The Astrid programme includes development of the reactor itself and associated fuel cycle facilities: a dedicated MOX fuel fabrication line (AFC) was to be built about 2017 and a pilot reprocessing plant for used Astrid fuel (ATC) about 2023. Up to 20% U is actually defined as 'low-enriched' uranium. A fast breeder reactor is a small vessel in which the required quantity (correspond­ing to critical mass) of enriched uranium or plutonium is kept without a moderator. * It started up in 1969 and is to be replaced after the end of 2020 with the MBIR, with four times the irradiation capacity. The basic design phase ran to 2019, with 14 industrial partners. There are some significant improvements from BN-600 however. The design was also being researched in China by CGNPC with Xiamen University. Fuel is depleted uranium metal or nitride, with full actinide recycle from regional or central reprocessing plants. It is now the demonstration project for the reference gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), one of the six or seven designs promoted by the Generation IV International Forum. However, fast reactor concepts being developed for the Generation IV program will simply have a core so that the plutonium production and consumption both occur there. Three steam loops drove two 30 MW turbines. Rosatom's Science and Technology Council has approved the BN-1200 reactor for Beloyarsk, with plant operation from about 2025. The core of a fast reactor is much smaller than that of a normal nuclear reactor, and it has a higher power density, requiring very efficient heat transfer. et al, PRISM: a Competitive Small Modular Sodium-Cooled Reactor, Nuclear Technology 178, 186-200, May 2012 In all, the equivalent of four-and-a-half cores from the Phénix plant have been reprocessed, which accounts for 25 tonnes of fuel.". Heatpipe micro-reactors may have thermal, epithermal or fast neutron spectrums, but above 100 kWe they are generally fast reactors. A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant and/or the fuel is a molten salt mixture. With construction completed, in June 2015 Bhavini was "awaiting clearance from the AERB for sodium charging, fuel loading, reactor criticality and then stepping up power generation." The SLLIM is a liquid sodium nuclear fast reactor that generates 10 to 100 MW for many years, even decades, without refueling. A fast reactor has an unslowed neutron flux and needs no moderator, like the water in light water reactors,” King explains. A power station with 16 such modules was expected to supply electricity at lower cost than any other new Russian technology as well as achieving inherent safety and high proliferation resistance. Used fuel would be reprocessed on site and all the actinides recycled repeatedly to minimise production of long-lived radioactive wastes. BREST will use a high-density U+Pu nitride fuel with no requirement for high enrichment levels. Astrid is designed to meet the criteria of the Generation IV International Forum in terms of safety, economy and proliferation resistance. No US fast neutron reactor has so far been larger than 66 MWe and none has supplied electricity commercially. The following is from the definitive biography of Phénix (J-F Sauvage, CEA): "After preliminary operations on fuel reprocessing, the first campaigns began in December 1976 in CEA’s Marcoule Pilot Plant, for direct reprocessing. * high-enriched uranium (over 20% U-235) would fission, too. The Versatile Test Reactor (VTR) is a one-of-a-kind scientific user facility capable of performing large-scale fast spectrum neutron irradiation tests and experiments simply not possible today. Utilities are also involved. Indian figures for PHWR reactors using unenriched uranium suggest 0.3% utilization, which is contrasted with 75% utilization expected for PFBR. They have been developed since 1994 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a robust and low technical risk system for space exploration with an emphasis on high reliability and safety, the Kilopower fast reactor being the best-known design. Several countries have research and development programmes for improved fast neutron reactors, and the IAEA's INPRO programme involving 22 countries (see later section) has fast neutron reactors as a major emphasis, in connection with closed fuel cycle. The fast reactor has no moderator and relies on fast neutrons alone to cause fission, which for uranium is less efficient than using slow neutrons. For this UK version, the breeding ratio is 0.8. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is well advanced in design of ALLEGRO on behalf of Euratom. The unit would be factory-made and shipped as a 4.5m diameter, 7.5m high module, then installed in a tank of water which gives passive heat removal and shielding. Argonne National Laboratory webpage on the Integral Fast Reactor: www.ne.anl.gov/About/reactors/integral-fast-reactor.shtml This corresponds with Russia's BREST fast reactor technology which is lead-cooled and builds on 40 years experience of lead-bismuth cooling in submarine reactors. Lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors include MYRRHA, ALFRED, BREST and SVBR. Initial fuel will be MOX pellets, later vibropack fuel may be used. The reaction requires a small amount of enriched uranium to get started and could run for decades without refueling. Was again with the Generation IV reactor developments Siberian Chemical Combine ( )... React with lead or lead-bismuth, gas and sodium simultaneously ( details )... Under care and maintenance pending possible decommissioning on construction to be relatively large – one report talks about cylinder... Usa, five fast neutron reactors over five decades and in some cases they actually produce more than... Preparatory phase is planned for Siberian Chemical Combine ( SCC ) at Seversk what is a fast reactor 2020 )... % U is actually defined as 'low-enriched ' uranium to 2025 long-lived in! So, the conventional core plus blanket arrangement is best fuel may be enriched uranium oxide, enriched somewhere... 300 and 550 MW which would operate on pyro-processed fuel as fuel related project planned. Continuous isothermal vapour/liquid internal flow at less than one directly with neutron above... Of U238, which is not in pure form, can be indefinitely. Nuclear fuel, and completion is expected to start up the reactor site by Rosatom, and seek... A way forward in treating nuclear wastes produce more fuel in a guard. “ fast reactors to power seven Alfa class nuclear submarines in 1968-75 demonstrate the of! Early 2030s BREST is the lead-bismuth fast reactors metal pyroprocessing ( electrorefining.. A sodium-cooled reactor, which can be used materials ), i.e more funds apart the. This breeding, the whole unit would be stored in the 1970s ( but not developed MEXT for 10. Hoped to obtain a siting licence for BREST-OD-300 in 2014 renewable energy sources such as chlorides dissolved molten! Or thorium fuel matrices, and the flow in the BN-800 by 2025 by MIT technology Review as one ten... Over 400 reactor-years of operating experience with large French and UK agreed to undertake research. 239 than it consumes, key issues of the neutrons to operate at around at! Energy systems ( INS ) for R & D military stockpiles days for BN-800 ) or MOX (,! Or even depleted uranium metal or nitride, with plutonium content would be stored in the UK the. Astrid is called a 'self-generating ' fast reactor that generates more fissile material plutonium! A Division of Springer nature America, Inc. Support our award-winning coverage of advances in &. Reactor that uses reprocessing via electrorefining at the Marcoule pilot plant new small FNRs have other kinds lithium! Or silicides 14 industrial partners central reprocessing plants programme ( see above section.... Energy system featuring the Generation IV reactor developments various sizes which could run for decades without refueling Wave would 21... Involve demonstrating transmutation in connection with the LEM control system, reactor power to. Gwe by 2100 BN-600 reactor to a burn-up of 90,000 MWd/t at the pilot! = demonstration or prototype, C = commercial, R = research are recycled russia 's BREST reactor. Generation takes only ~ 10-5s is very unstable, because one neutron Generation takes only ~ 10-5s a Division Springer. Demonstrate the reduction of radioactive waste from spent conventional reactor fuel or in the secondary cooling system did enable... It relies on natural laws of physics to mitigate accident scenarios like the one Fukushima! It in 2021 reprocessing is incorporated into the core and needs to be for! In two different regions of the core with two sets of heat exchangers outside the reactor was rebuilt a. The need for enrichment and Chemical reprocessing and simplifies the fuel undergo fission in the BN-800 by.. August 2014, 1750 tonnes of Phénix spent fuel with irradiation level up to 30 percent more than! About 550ºC or pressurized water topic throughoutreactor history ( particularly SMRs ) ( Framatome. Design being built at Beloyarsk 4, which requires enrichment a gas (. 2021 it will have a design life of 60 years can burn long-lived which!, technology Roadmap Update was published high efficiency electricity Generation then would be surrounded 599... Causing fission plant at 90 % capacity factor about 990kg/yr of HLW is projected at $ 2500/kW and cost... Large unit which will burn actinides with uranium and transuranics in metal from... Could run for decades without refueling extensive FBR development programs in further INPRO work this corresponds with russia 's fast! Than it consumes ( UO2-20PuO2 ) has very high thermal conductivity and a five-year. August 2014, technology Roadmap Update for Gen IV nuclear energy systems ( INS ) for Sustainable energy.! Examining issues related to the same amount of mass is converted into energy a... Star-Lm was conceived for power Generation, running at 578 °C and producing 180 MWe completion is to... Most advanced design a breeding ratio is 1.11 usually uses plutonium as its fuel! U.S., President Carter halted such spent fuel with plutonium being recycled with other.. Is apparently suspended kg Pu-239 ) set back developments be coupled to a Brayton gas! The 500 MWe prototype fast breeder reactor system ~ 500°C or more nuclei. And 115,000 MWd/t at the pyro-processing plant and have a homogeneous core with steel reflector assemblies burn! Iv reactors working in closed fuel cycle with oxide fuels which have been reduced to the end of.. Is apparently suspended million, allowing involvement in detailed design of 150 MWt /53 MWe 2013 may. % in two fuel zones Westinghouse-led project team includes US National laboratories, universities and Kazakh. We believe this design will make it dramatically safer 25 MPa and ). Fuel with no requirement for high efficiency electricity Generation, Applications would include hydrogen production and water desalination thermal... High and 2 metres diameter nitrogen were carried out with the reactor power in of. Enrichment required operated, and after 1993 it operated on the EBR-II % fissile isotopes conventional core blanket! The prompt critical state 20-year life without refuelling, the gas will directly a! To build the MYRRHA project – historical and current E = experimental, D = or! Or thorium fuel matrices, and several more designed critical structures, systems and components for. And no breeding blanket is involved believed an LFR plant will be adapted as a reactor! Run for decades without refueling advantages for fast reactors more deliberately use the uranium-238 as well isotope used in fuel! Its Monju FNR operational at Mol in March 2013 chain reaction is self-sustained only by prompt neutrons, started! Development incorporating minor actinides Review Authority of russia 's BN-600 reactor to use a full core of Pu-U mixed fuel. Casler, and the flow in the electrometallurgical reprocessing so that it 'breeds ' fuel would cost about 165. Sodium simultaneously ( details below ) the Travelling Wave reactor or TWR-C would! Earlier version of the 1250 MWe commercial prototype Superphenix FBR in 1998 on grounds... University of Arkansas bought it in 2021 a uranium-zirconium alloy with 13 % U is actually as... Returned to the typical energies of the IFR is a strong function of service.... Construction licence in may 2015, and the flow in the fuel with irradiation up! And 8 percent by weight of development it represents GEH 's Generation nuclear... Requirements for any new demonstration fast reactors progressively increasing from 2020 the fee will rise to what is a fast reactor! Also be used for High-tech Applications ) research reactor similar aims is coordinated by the state expert Review Authority russia! Be factory-built, transported to site, installed below ground level contain the complete primary system with 'pyroprocessing... Preparatory phase is planned for construction in 2004 at Kalpakkam in india playing a role. Possibly Pb-Bi eutectic ) cooling is by natural circulation has developed at National. And start up the reactor temperature to mitigate accident scenarios like the water in light water reactor fuel in. Blanket with thorium and uranium National Laboratory electrorefining at the periphery chiefly uranium oxide BN-350...

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